Monday, May 25, 2020

Autism Spectrum Disorder During Adolescence - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1036 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/02/14 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Autism Essay Did you like this example? Adolescence is a challenging part of growing up . From entering high school , to hitting puberty, every teen goes through their own struggles during adolescence. Teens with Autism , have to encounter the same situations as other teens, from handling a ton of homework, to figuring out which friends to hang out with. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) , is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs the ability to socialize, and interact with others. Autism is a lifelong condition, that is most often detected in early childhood. ASD affects the nervous system , and while there is no exact answer as to what causes ASD , scientists believe it is due to a faulty gene passed onto the child , in early fetal development. There are other theories on what causes ASD , such as viruses the mother encountered, and chemical imbalances. When a person is diagnosed with Autism, they are placed on a spectrum , the â€Å"A Spectrum† , determines whether the person is High functioning, meaning their cognitive skills are not challenged, as much as a person a person who is considered low functioning . Low functioning Autism , is the most severe end of the spectrum. A person with low Functioning Autism has severe impairments to their cognitive skills. The main difference that separates where a person lands on th e spectrum , is based off their cognitive skills , and their IQ level. Everyones body changes during Puberty , and while most neurotypical teens are excited to experience this stage in their life , teens with Autism are most often alarmed , and upset, by the sudden changes to their lives . Puberty brings on many obstacles in a teenagers life, from having your body go through changes , not only physically , but also emotionally. Change is often a problem for autistic teenagers , because they are accustomed to a set schedule , and routine . Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Autism Spectrum Disorder During Adolescence" essay for you Create order Having a set routine, helps Autistic individuals create a stable order in their lives. While a neurotypical teenagers can deal with the morning rush of getting ready and heading off to school in a rush, an Autistic teenager will become overwhelmed by the interruption in their set order . When an Autistic individual relies on a set routine, it helps motivate them to follow through with tasks , which helps them deal with tasks such as doing their chores, or focusing on their homework. When that routine is interrupted , it upsets, overwhelms , and agitates people with autism, which makes it harder for them to get through their day with a positive mindset. Small things like having to pick up dinner last minute , because mom did not have time to finish the dinner she planned for the family that specific night, is just one thing that can upset a person with Autism. Having to know what is for dinner during the week, or what socks to wear with a specific outfit , even having to wear blue s neakers on Tuesday , are all examples of mannerisms that people with Autism do to help manage anxiety, and ADHD, because it helps decrease their impulsivity, and aggression . When a neurotypical individual has their schedule messed up , it also upsets, and agitates them, but they are faster to comprehend that they can still go throughout the day , even though it did not go exactly as planned , while an autistic person will most often become thrown off for the rest of their day. Making friends , and meeting people that you are attracted to are all parts of being a teenager, and trying to fit in , is one of the biggest struggles every single person encounters in high school. While trying to find friends that are genuine , and accept you can be hard , but it is even harder when someone has trouble understanding social cues . Studies show that students with autism are more likely to be excluded by their peers , because students do not typically reach out to introverted people, and they are less likely to talk to people outside of their friend group. Autistic teens have trouble finding friends, because they have a harder time picking up on social cues, and they typically refrain from reaching out to their peers, because they do not know how to communicate with them. Neurotypical individuals generally have an easier time making friends, and fitting in, because they have an easier time understanding social cues such as â€Å"kidding around†(Joking), or sarcasm. Going to the movies, football games, parties, and hanging out late at night at a fast food restaurant , are all things teenagers enjoy doing with the little bit of freedom their parents give them . Some Teenagers also look forward to sneaking around behind their parents backs to go to a party that their crush is throwing. These are all things that Autistic teenagers do not typically get to encounter, because they do not handle large crowds well (Due to loud noises and large groups of people, it becomes scary and overwhelming), they like to stay in a comfortable â€Å"zone† that includes following their routines, which include mom and dads house rules.Because Autistic individuals have a tough time comprehending cognitive skills, they may not understand why some teenagers laugh ,and smile when they are in class raving about the party they got drunk at saturday night , or going out passed curfew on friday night to drink your first beer with your friends. People with Autism, want to be treated just like everyone else, and they want to genuinely feel included by their peers. Just because a person is Autistic , does not mean that they cannot hang out with their friends, join the schools sports team, or go on a date with the person that they like. It is important to remember that everyone on the spectrum is different , so telling an autistic person something like, â€Å" my friends brother has Autism† , is not a very good conversation starter , because every person on the spectrum is vastly different from the next. Works Cited Sarris, M. (2013, July 23). Autism in the Teen Years: What to Expect, How to Help. Retrieved from https://iancommunity.org/cs/simons_simplex_community/autism_in_teens Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). (2018, May 03). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html Hurst, M. (n.d.). Teenagers With Autism: Symptoms, Treatment, Help. Retrieved November 1, 2018, from https://www.crchealth.com/troubled-teenagers/autism-in-teenagers/

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Middle Childhood Is Very Important Time In A Child’S...

Middle childhood is very important time in a child’s life. This is the time when a child starts to look up to their peers and starts to accept the actions of their peers and starts to understand what true friendship is. Middle childhood is a difficult time in a child’s life, the child grows from a young teen into an adolescent, and the change emotionally is sometimes overwhelming. Children of this age start to worry about what people think about them and what they can do to please everyone, even if it’s not the right thing. With all that is going on for the child in these times it sometimes leads to drug use, rebellious acts, depression, and peer pressure. Children at these ages feel the need to please everyone around them and will do†¦show more content†¦Sentiment and dating enter the photo interestingly and sexual movement turns into an alternative. The impact of partners/relationships and different friends are still exceptionally solid, yet the s takes are higher. In this time mischief can be higher depending on the company that is held. Self-esteem and confidence are normal topics all through the whole life improvement cycle. In center youth, correlations are made to check whether capacities are up to saw measures. This runs in accordance with Erikson s formative phase of industry versus mediocrity. How great a young person trusts coincides with how great they are at given errands. As pre-adulthood approaches, the concentration shifts from what they do to their identity. The part one plays in the public eye turns out to be more imperative whether it be in standard culture or some counterculture. A man s way of life, and age can impact egocentrism, adolescents trust that their appearance and conduct is under the watch of others. The other idea is the individual tale, which supplements the nonexistent crowd. The nonexistent group of onlookers moves toward becoming overcome with how youngsters look and act and how exceptional and uncommon they are. The youthful trusts that they are by one means or another interminable and unique. The individual tale has the immature trusting that nobody else comprehends or trusts that nobody else has ever been in this situation. The individual tale

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Understanding Depression - 1037 Words

The term depression is widely misused in today’s society. All human beings experience periods in life where they are sad for a relatively short period of time, which is considered normal. Those who experience sadness for extended periods may be suffering from depression. Two terms used to reference the classifications of depression, are Major Depressive Disorder, and Dysthymia. Individual diagnosis of these classifications is dependent on the length of time, and severity of symptoms experienced by the individual. The causes for these depressive states can be due to genetics or the insufficient production of neurotransmitters, which provide the brain with the data necessary to regulate ones psychological well being. Two examples†¦show more content†¦The purpose of following story is to introduce the symptoms of depression and an appropriate method to provide positive intervention to help one who may be suffering from a depressive state. The ability to recognize t he symptoms of depression, and how to address the situation can mean the difference between life and death. Marybeth and Kenny had been friends for as long as they could remember. They were like peas and carrots always together. If you saw Kenny, you saw Marybeth and vice versa. As they grow into young teenagers, this friendship continued. Approaching their senior year in High school, they began to discuss what colleges they would like to attend. Being from the rural city of Bumpus Mills in the Blue Grass state of Kentucky, they both had visions of seeing the world and wanted to attend the University of Kentucky (UK), Located in Boiling Green. Their imaginations ran wild with what life would be like in the big city. As the year, progressed Kenny and Marybeth excelled in their studies, and submitted their applications for acceptance to UK. After several weeks Marybeth received her letter of acceptance. Immediately, she ran next door to Kenny’s house and asked if he had received his letter. Kenny with a sad face expressed that he had received his letter, but the University denied his application. Marybeth consoled Kenny, as he was her, best friend andShow MoreRelatedUnderstanding And Treating Depression1662 Words   |  7 PagesDecember 17, 2015 Understanding and Treating Depression Americans are obsessed with happiness, yet increasingly depressed. A dominant theme in our society is that you should be happy, and if you are not, there is something wrong with you. Life can be difficult at times and people do not seem to realize that everyone has different circumstances. There are about 15 million Americans that battle the disease of depression. Our society is in the throes of a virtual epidemic of depression (Psychology today)Read MoreUnderstanding Clinical Depression770 Words   |  4 Pagesour life’s, however depression is different from this occasional feelings. Depression affects everything in your life and performing easy task and daily activities become hard, you have trouble seeking the positive things and you stuck yourself in the negative side. One question we might all ask will be how do we know if we are depressed or simply just sad? In order to answer that question we first need to understand the definition of depression, in medical news today depression is defined as.† ARead More Understanding the Great Depression Essay2842 Words   |  12 PagesIt was in 1929 that industrial production declined, business slumped and depression began in the United States. Rising unemployment, falling incomes, increasingly underutilized capacity, the drop in primary-product prices and the collapse of international trade combined to depress the international economy. 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This essay will evaluate this model ability to understand depression and anxiety, addiction, and dementia, and will show that in some cases of mental problems, the biopsychosocial perspective is not the appropriate tool for explaining these problems. Firstly, this approach is crucial for understanding depression and anxiety, and the case of Neha’s depression is an example. Socially, she suffered a divorce and her parents’ death (Toates, 2010, p18). PsychologicallyRead More Understanding Depression Essay examples2089 Words   |  9 Pagesmelancholy people that are all looking for happiness and disappointed with what we find? Leaving us in a state of depression and unstableness. Turning us into not only a society of dismal people, but people that are left spiritless and melancholic? In today’s society depression is referred to as the â€Å"common cold of the mental health problems.† More than 5 percent of Americans have depression, that equates to an astonishing 15 million people. It is said that 1 out of every 6 people has had a â€Å"major†Read MoreEssay on Understanding Depression: Family Systems Theory3654 Words   |  15 PagesDepression is classified as a mood disorder by the DSM-IV (1994) and is defined as a mental illness characterized by sadness, general apathy, a loss of self-esteem, feelings of guilt, and, at times, suicidal tendencies (Lexicon, n.d). Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses that individuals receive treatment for today. In any six-month period, 9.4 million Americans, and 340 million people in the world, suffer from this disease. One in four women and one in 10 men will develop depressionRead MoreUnit 81196 Words   |  5 Pagesdeal with accidents, injuries and emergency situations, dealing wit h blood and other body fluids, reporting procedures, understanding moving and handling procedures and understanding how to use mechanical or electrical equipment. 1.3 analyse the main health and safety responsibilities of: Self: we have to take care of our own health and safety at all times. Understanding relevant legislation and agreed ways of working. Make sure we have relevant training and make sure you wear correct PPE

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Medical and Family Law

Questions: Part A: Medical Law (a) Ever since she won 2m. On the National Lottery last month, the three-months pregnant Miss Wirewaist, aged 30, has been smoking like a chimney and drinking vodka like a fish. She has also been ignoring all medical advice given her. She wants to know whether, in order to protect the life of the foetus (her unborn child), she can lawfully be compelled to stop smoking and drinking alcohol. Advise her. (b) Miss Wirewaist has also expressly stated that she does not want her hospital, where she attends for treatment for her knee, to use her medical records for the purposes of research and annual audit, unless she is paid a generous fee. Advise her and the hospital authorities. (c) Mrs. Stricta has just found out that her family doctor, Dr. Conscience, has put her 15-year-old daughter, May, on contraceptive pills without her (Mrs. Stricta)s consent. Mrs. Stricta is furious and wants to take legal action against Dr. Conscience. Advise Mrs Stricta. Part B: Family Law It is impossible to provide a single definition of marriage. Indeed, one approach is to say that one cannot define marriage because marriage is whatever the parties to a marriage take it to mean. Discuss the ways in which the law seeks to provide a viable definition of marriage within family law. Answer: Part A: Medical Law: (a) The given case states that Miss Wirewaist, is a pregnant women who is continuously involved in smoking and drinking. This activity is extremely harmful for her health and primarily for the health of her fetus. According to the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 if a child is born disabled a third party defendant can be sued for damages for those disabilities when they are caused by the defendants tortious act. The act provides that if disabilities of child are a result of the wrongful act of parent, then the mother is also responsible. However, in the case of S v St. Georges Hospital, the Court of Appeal stated that until a fetus is born it has no rights that prevail against the mothers rights. This landmark Women's charities warn court case was brought by the local government authorities in UK where a six-year old girl was affected by fetal alcohol syndrome due to her mothers excessive drinking. One of the vital issues in the case was that the fetus has a different legal and biological entity and hence can be considered as a victim of crime. The council held that the mother had committed a crime under the Offences Against the Persons Act 1861 for drinking during her pregnancy. In this case the court of Appeal held that any young child is not entitled to any criminal injuries compensation due to the drinking habits of the mother while she was pregnant. The Court further stated that any pregnant mother who is drinking heavily despite knowing of the possible harm to her child will not be held guilty of any criminal offence under the laws of the country even if the child is subsequently born damaged. Hence the advice that should be given to Miss Wirewaist is that presently after the decision of the court of appeals there is no law that forces pregnant women to quit smoking or drinking. (b) Miss Wirewaist attends treatment for her knee in a hospital and she expects that the hospital would not use her medical records for the purpose of research or audit unless a generous fee has been given to her. According to the Good Clinical Practice standards presently GCP has become a legal obligation in UK. The laws state that informed consent is required from all the participants before any research is done and adequate information about the benefits and risks should be given to the patients. According to Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004 a favorable opinion needs to be obtained from the ethics committee and licensing authority. Hence accordingly, hospital does not have any right to use the medical records of Miss. Wirewaist without the Miss Wirewaists permission and in accordance to her terms. (c) With regard to the consent of the parent for giving contraceptives to the child a rule developed as to whether a child of 16 years or younger has the capacity to consent to her medical treatment without parental knowledge. In the case of Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority [1985], a health departmental circular advised the doctors on the contraception of minors. The released circular stated that the contraception prescription was at the discretion of the doctor such could be prescribed without parental consent. The House of Lords ruled in the case that the issue consent was more vital than the rights of the parents. Other than safeguarding the interests of the minor the parents rights did not exist and it was held that a minor has the right to consent and parents cannot veto such consent. Hence accordingly, in the given case, Mrs. Stricta cannot take legal actions against Dr. Conscience according to the prevailing medical laws in the United Kingdom. Part B: Family Law Some of the basic elements of a family are marriage or the relationship between two adults, the presence of children, resource sharing, continuity over time and the connections with other kin. Throughout the years the definition of marriage and how marriage observed by different generations has gone through a number of changes. With the changes in the conception of marriage the laws relating to marriage has also undergone changes. The United Kingdom has marriage laws that recognize all forms of marriage including civil and religious unions. The marriage laws are applicable to the opposite sex as well as the same sex couples. According to the rules of marriage in United Kingdom, the minimum age to enter into a valid marriage is sixteen years. However, till the age of eighteen the consent of the parents is necessary. In the case of religious marriages in most cases it is conducted by religious celebrants who are authorized to do so and civil marriages are conducted generally by the state registrar. In England and Wales the marriage laws are quite separate from other jurisdiction. Till the 18th century marriages were allowed to take place in any place as long as they were conducted by the appropriate clergyman from the Church of England. As a result of this a number of secret marriages used to take place during these times and those were often bigamous. The Civil Partnership Act was passed in 2004 and that gave the couples from the same sex the legal rights and responsibilities similar to that of the married heterosexual couples. The Act further states the formal procedures that is necessary for the dissolution of the partnerships similar to the rules of divorce. Later in the year 2013, the parliament passed the Same Sex Marriage Act that legalized the same sex marriage in England and Wales. In order to incorporate all the different forms of marriage and regulations in these categories the United Kingdom has elaborate laws that intend to cover all the important aspects in relation to marriage. One of the early laws relating to marriage was the Marriage Act 1949 that governed all the formalities essential for entering a legally enforceable marriage. The Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 states that a marriage can be brought to an end in accordance with section 11 where grounds are provided for the marriage to be void and in accordance to section 12 which states the grounds for the marriage to be voidable. The Family Law Act 1996 provides for the modernized divorce laws and nullity as a remedy was abolished in the country. The regulations on marriage also include the Forced Marriage Protection Act 2007 which attempts to legitimize the children born who are born out of voidable marriages. This includes those children who were born out of void marriages where at least one parent believed the marriage to be valid during the time of conception. The divorce laws are also provided which gives a number of grounds on which divorce can be sought. Divorce can be sort as a result of no consummation resulting from incapacity, result of non-consummation resulting from refusal. This clause is subject to the fact that marriage must have happened and ordinary completion of intercourse. Divorce can also be given resulting from lack of consent due to mistake, duress, unsoundness of the mind, or due to identity or the parties or the nature of ceremonies. Divorce can also be sought under section 12 (d) for mental disorder, under section 12 (e) for venereal disease and under section 12 (f) for pregnancy per alium. Hence it can observed from the laws relating to marriage and divorce that the family laws in United Kingdom intend to construe a feasible definition of marriage through these rules and regulations that meet the demands of the present and future generations. Bibliography: ABC News, 'UK Case Could Lead To Pregnant Women Being Charged For Drinking' (2014) https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-06/british-case-could-lead-to-pregnant-women-charged-for-drinking/5871610 accessed 9 February 2015 Corfield L, Granne I and Latimer-Sayer W,ABC Of Medical Law(Wiley-Blackwell/BMJ Books 2009) Diduck A and O'Donovan K,Feminist Perspectives On Family Law(Routledge-Cavendish 2006) GHANDHI P and MACNAMEE E, 'THE FAMILY IN UK LAW AND THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS 1966' (1991) 5 "International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family" Mail Online, 'Pregnant Women Who Drink Will NOT Be Criminalised After Child Left Brain Damaged When Her Mother Drank Half A Bottle Of Vodka And Eight Cans Of Lager A Day Loses Test Case For Compensation' (2014) https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2860485/Mothers-drink-NOT-criminalised-child-left-brain-damaged-mother-drank-half-bottle-vodka-eight-cans-lager-day-pregnant-loses-test-case-compensation.html accessed 9 February 2015 Nhlapo R and Eekelaar J,The Changing Family(Hart Pub 1998) Pascall G, 'UK Family Policy In The 1990S: The Case Of New Labour And Lone Parents' (1999) 13 International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family Phillips A,Medical Negligence Law(Dartmouth 1997) Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority(1985) 3 All ER S v St Georges Hospital(1998) 3 WLR

Monday, March 9, 2020

Pros and Cons of the Common Core State Standards

Pros and Cons of the Common Core State Standards The full implementation of the Common Core State Standards has come and gone. The true impact that they have on schools and education as a whole may still not be known for several years. One thing that is for sure is this shift to a national set of standards has been revolutionary and highly controversial. They have been highly debated and well discussed with a handful of states once committed to the standards having eventually recanted to go a different direction. As the media continues to evaluate the significance of the Common Core and data from Common Core states begin to pour in, you can bet the debate will rage on. Here, we examine several of the pros and cons of the Common Core Standards that will continue to lead the debate. PROS The Common Core State Standards are internationally benchmarked. This means that our standards will compare favorably to standards of other countries. This is positive in that the United States has dropped considerably in educational rankings over the last few decades. By having standards that are internationally benchmarked that ranking could begin to improve.The Common Core State Standards has allowed states to compare standardized test scores accurately. Up until the Common Core Standards, each state had their own set of standards and assessments. This has made it exceedingly difficult to compare one states results accurately with another state’s results. This is no longer the case with like standards and assessments for Common Core states who share the same assessments.The Common Core State Standards has decreased the costs states pay for test development, scoring, and reporting. This is because each state will no longer have to pay to have their unique tests to be develop ed. Each of the states that share the same standards can develop a like test to meet their needs and split costs. Currently, there are two majors Common Core-related testing consortia. Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium is made up of fifteen states and PARCC consists of nine states. The Common Core Standards has increased the rigor in some classrooms and may better prepare students for college and global work success. This is probably the single biggest reason that the Common Core Standards were created. Higher education has long complained that more and more students need remediation at the beginning of college. The increased rigor should lead students to be more prepared for life after high school.The Common Core State Standards arguably has lead to the development of higher level thinking skills in our students. Students today often are tested on one skill at a time. The Common Core assessment will cover several skills within each question. This will ultimately lead to better problem-solving skills and increased reasoning.The Common Core State Standards assessments have given teachers a tool to monitor students’ progress throughout the year. The assessments will have optional pre-test and progress monitoring tools that teachers can use to find out what a student knows, where they are going, and to figure out a plan to get them where they need to be. This gives teachers an avenue to compare an individual student’s progress instead of one student against another. The Common Core State Standards assessments have been more authentic to a child’s learning experience. We will be able to see what all a student has learned across all curricula through the multi-assessment model. Students will no longer simply be allowed to come up with the right answer. Often times they must give an answer, state how they arrived at that conclusion, and defend it.The Common Core State Standards can benefit students with high mobility when they move from one Common Core state into another. States will now share the same set of standards. Students in Arkansas should be learning the same thing as a student in New York. This will benefit students whose families move continuously.The Common Core State Standards has given students stability thus allowing them to understand what is expected of them. This is important in that if a student understands what, and why they are learning something, there becomes a greater sense of purpose behind learning it.The Common Cor e State Standards has in many ways enhanced teacher collaboration and professional development. Teachers across the nation have been teaching the same curriculum. This allows teachers in opposite corners of the nation to share their best practices with each other and apply it. It also provides the opportunity for meaningful professional development as the education community is all on the same page. Finally, the standards have sparked a meaningful, nationwide conversation about the state of education in general. CONS The Common Core State Standards has been a tremendously difficult adjustment for students and teachers. It has been a difficult transition. It was not the way many teachers were used to teaching and not the way that many students were used to learning. There have not been instant results but instead, has been a slow process with many almost refusing to get on board.The Common Core State Standards has caused many outstanding teachers and administrators to pursue other career options. Many veteran teachers have retired rather than adjust the way they teach. The stress of getting their students to perform will likely continue to cause more teacher and administrator burnout.The Common Core State Standards are vague and broad. The standards are not particularly specific, but many states have been able to deconstruct or unwrap the standards making them more teacher friendly.The Common Core State Standards has forced younger students to learn more at a quicker pace than they ever have befor e. With the increased rigor and higher level thinking skills, early childhood programs have become more rigid. Pre-Kindergarten has become more important, and skills students used to learn in second grade are being taught in Kindergarten. The Common Core State Standards assessment does not have an equivalency test for students with special needs. Many states provide students with special needs a modified version of the test. There is no modified test for the Common Core Standards, meaning that 100% of a school’s population has their results reported for accountability purposes.The Common Core State Standards could be watered down when compared to a few states who had previously developed and adopted rigorous standards. The Common Core Standards were designed as a middle ground of the current state standards meaning that while many states’ standards were raised, there were some whose rigor decreased.The Common Core State Standards caused many textbooks to become obsolete. This was a pricey fix as many schools had to develop or purchase new curricula and materials that were aligned to the Common Core.The Common Core State Standards costs schools a lot of money to update the technology needed for the Common Core Standards Assessments. Most of the assessments are online. This created many issues for districts who had to purchase enough computers for all students to be assessed in a timely manner. The Common Core State Standards has led to an increased value on standardized test performance. High stakes testing is already a trending issue, and now that states are able to compare their performances against another accurately, the stakes have only become higher.The Common Core State Standards currently only have skills associated with English-Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics. There is currently no science, social studies, or art/music Common Core Standards. This leaves it up to individual states to have to develop their own set of standards and assessments for these topics.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Liberation movements and US policy Research Paper

Liberation movements and US policy - Research Paper Example Over the past, there has been a number of liberation movements all aimed at getting some specific end results. These liberation movements usually have some effects on the areas in which they operate. They touch on different spheres for instance political, social, economic and socio-cultural areas (Berdal and Malone 108). This piece of work looks at various liberation movements and their effect on the US Policy. As stated earlier, there has been formation of a number of liberation movements each of them having different impacts on different aspects. Some of them have lasted for a relatively long period of time and achieved their mission and vision while others have only existed for a short period of time. There have been a lot of terms and definitions that have been put forth with respect to liberation movements. For instance, they have been referred to as rebel movements, non-state armed groups, insurgencies among other terms. Some definitions tend to be relatively narrow while other s are very extensive. The difference in definitions has been as a result of the difference in these group’s structure, goals and objectives and well as their geopolitical environment. However, a general definition that has been put forward for the resistance and liberation movements states that they are groups that have a hierarchical organization that acts as a command tool, are independent from state control, they use violence to attain political ends and have a certain level of territorial power over a given geographical area (Bruderlein 17). Some of the liberation movements that will be discussed in this paper include FARC, Hamas, Hezbollah and Basque Separatist. FARC FARC stand for the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia. It was founded in the year 1964. It is ranked as the largest, oldest, best equipped and most capable Latin America’s insurgency. It was established as a military wing linked with the Columbian Communist Party. It is of Marxist origin. Currentl y, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia concentrates in fighting for the achievement of the Marxist goals. Columbia is the primary country of operation of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia. However it undertakes some other activities in its neighboring nations for instance acquisition of weapons, extortion, kidnapping, as well as logistics among others (The National Counterterrorism Center par 1). As a resistance and liberation movement, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia employs different tactics in an effort to achieve its goals and objectives against Columbia military, economic as well as political targets. Some of the tactics include murder, extortion, bombing, kidnapping, revolutionary and conventional military action as well as hijacking. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia is also well known in its indulgence in drug trafficking related activities for example its cultivation, distribution and taxation. The main factor that has led to the consider ation of the US persons as being legitimate military targets is the fact that the United States fully supports the Columbian government. Although the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia has had some successes in its activities, it has also faced a lot of challenges that have undermined its powers thus affecting its capability to undertake its activities, as desired against the Columbian government and the United States of America at large. In the year 2009 for example, the group lost a